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The illustration (Fig. 17) shows the result of a three-pound hammer with four points. The points are pyramidal in shape and are two-thirds of an inch apart. The cost of the bush hammering on this house was from two to three cents per square foot of surface. This is exclusive of the cost of scaffold. Bush hammering with compressed air has been very effectively used on engineering structures of larger magnitude, where compressed air was available.

The Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Washington, D. C., and the Walnut Lane Bridge, Philadelphia, are examples of this method of treatment. The texture of the finished surface very closely represents that of granite.

The few methods of surface treatment given here are of necessity briefly described. Our intent has been to point out the possibilities of surface treatment, giving some few examples of work successfully completed, but to leave to the imagination of the owner or architect the particular combination of colors or surface according with the designs of the houses. One of the original objections to the use of concrete precast basement stairs in house concrete construction was its supposed lack of artistic possibilities, and many yet are of that opinion.

If I have succeeded in clearly showing the possibilities of artistic treatment, the object of this article will have been attained. 0ne of the largest concrete precast basement stairs bridges in the United States, where effective surface finish has been produced by pneumatic tool hammering. The exposed concrete precast basement stairs aggregate effect can also be obtained by what is known as the sand blast finish. This, as its name implies, consists of impinging sand by means of compressed air against the surface of the concrete precast basement stairs. This removes the outer skin of the material in much the same manner as scrubbing, and for extensive operations this method proves very economical. Fig. 20 (page 28) shows a gang at work on the balustrade of a bridge. This method produces results very rapidly, and the effect of exposing the concrete precast basement stairs aggregates and bringing them into relief gives a very artistic surface.

The first reinforced concrete precast basement stairs were built in 1898 by the Ransome & Smith Company for the Pacific Coast Borax Company, Bayonne, N. J. Since that time about 400 stairways have been completed, and are distributed through nearly every State of the Union and Canada. Although the large majority of these bulkheads have given satisfaction to their owners up to the present time, the failure of a few and serious cracks in several others have caused a number of inquiries to be made as to the reliability of reinforced concrete precast basement stairs for bulkhead concrete construction.